Journal: PLoS One. 2014 Oct 13;9(10):e109580.
Author: Pengfei Leng, Zhiming Zhang, Qian Li, Maojun Zhao , Guangtang Pan
The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a widespread and destructive plant pathogen with a very broad host range. Although various pathogens, including R. solani, have been traditionally controlled using chemical pesticides, their use faces drawbacks such as environmental pollution, development of pesticide resistance, and other negative effects. Carbendazim is a well-known antifungal agent capable of controlling a broad range of plant diseases, but its use is hampered by its poor aqueous solubility. In this study, we describe an environmentally friendly pharmaceutical microemulsion system using carbendazim as the active ingredient, chloroform and acetic acid as solvents, and the surfactants HSH and 0204 as emulsifiers. This system increased the solubility of carbendazim to 30 g/L. The optimal microemulsion formulation was determined based on a pseudo-ternary phase diagram; its physicochemical characteristics were also tested. The cloud point was greater than 90°C and it was resistant to freezing down to −18°C, both of which are improvements over the temperature range in which pure carbendazim can be used. This microemulsion meets the standard for pesticide microemulsions and demonstrated better activity against R. solani AG1-IA, relative to an aqueous solution of pure carbendazim (0.2 g/L). The mechanism of activity was reflected in the inhibition of against R. solani AG1-IA including mycelium growth, and sclerotia formation and germination were significantly better than that of 0.2 g/L carbendazim water solution according to the results of t-test done by SPSS 19.